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Effects of offshore pile driving
This study analyses the effects of the construction of eight offshore wind farms within the German North Sea between 2009 and 2013 on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). It combines porpoise monitoring data from passive acoustic monitoring using Porpoise Detectors (POD data 2010-2013) and aerial surveys (2009-2013) with data on noise levels and other piling characteristics. These data were analysed in detail in connection to pile driving activities, most of which occurred with application of noise mitigation techniques in order to reduce disturbance effects.